Cycle 2 Latin Verbs

Would you like to learn a little more about Latin verb endings?  Need a few tips on how to apply these endings with real Latin words?

You have come to the right place!

When we conjugate a verb, we always say them in the pronoun order (learned in our English grammar memory work for Cycle 2).  That is, the order is always:

  • first person singular
  • second person singular
  • third person singular
  • first person plural
  • second person plural
  • third person plural

So, for one verb, we are learning 36 different forms (6 persons x 6 tenses), all with slightly different translations!

Here is a sample Latin verb. “laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātus” meaning praise.
This verb has been conjugated and translated in six different tenses.

conjugated_verb_laudo

How do you find the stem?  

The following explanation is for regular first conjugation verbs only.

Look at the principal parts of the verb.  

  • laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātus – praise
  • The first principal part is always in the present first person singular form.  The stem is everything minus the ō.  This stem is used for the present, imperfect, and future tenses.
  • The second principal part is the infinitive.  If the infinitive has the āre  ending, then the verb is a first conjugation verb.
  • The third principal part is used to form the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect tenses.  First conjugation verbs have the first principal part stem + āvī.  The ī ending of āvī is the first person singular perfect tense form.
  • The fourth principal part is used in forming passives, which are not covered on these conjugation charts.

 

Summary

For the purpose of conjugating the six tenses for a first conjugation verb, here’s what you need to know:

Present, Imperfect, Future

  • Look at the first principal part of the verb.  This is the first singular present tense.
  • The stem for the rest of the conjugations is the first principal part minus the ō.
  • Add the vowel ā before all the rest of the verb endings for these three tenses.
  • Example, laudō means “I pray”.   Use laudā + endings for the rest.

Perfect, Pluperfect, Future Perfect

  • Use the main stem with the vowel ā + v.  Then add the tense endings.
  • Example, laudāvī mean I prayed (or I have prayed).  laudāv + endings is used to form the rest of these tenses.

 

Practice/Apply Latin Verb Endings

Want some options for applying these Latin verb endings on real Latin words?

I have chosen eight first conjugation Latin verbs used at the beginning of Henly Latin.

  • orō, orāre, orāvī, orātus – pray or beg
  • portō, portāre, portāvī, portātus – carry
  • laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātus – praise
  • occupō, occupāre, occupāvī, occupātus – seize
  • oppugnō, oppugnāre, oppugnāvī, oppugnātus – attack
  • parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus – prepare
  • superō, superāre, superāvī, superātus – attack
  • pugnō, pugnāre, pugnāvī, pugnātus – fight

 

There are several ways to approach studying these verbs.  You could do a week by week, where you add endings to two verbs in whatever tense you are practicing that week.  You can use that same verb in later weeks when you change the tense. (Sample below)

sample1presenttense.png

Another option is to have one verb on each page and conjugate that one verb in six different tenses.  You can just add the tenses each week as you learn them, or you can do all the tenses at once (preferably in second semester as a review).  This verb at a glance approach may be appropriate for prepping for Challenge, a summer activity for incoming 7th and 8th graders.

sampleverbataglance.png

Or you may want to have these verbs with the translation already filled in, so students are only writing the endings.

sample3endingsonly.png

 

Copy of Birthday Central

 

  The Latin Verb Download includes all of these options!! You can do week by week, verb at a glance with or without translation.  There is also an answer key for all eight verbs (sample at the top of this post).

 

 

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